Table I.

DKK1’s role as an immunosuppressor in cancer

Cancer CellMechanism of ActionImmunosuppressionEffectRef.
Human lung cancer cells (H2087)
Human breast cancer cells (HCC1954)
Downregulation of ligands (ULBPs) for NK cell–activating receptor NKG2DImmune evasion against NK cell–mediated immune surveillanceLong-term survival and preserved cancer-initiating capacity71
Mouse Lewis lung carcinoma cellsDownregulation of β-catenin expression in MDSCsDecreased T cell recruitmentDecrease in MDSC accumulation and tumor growth by neutralizing DKK172
Breast cancer cells (SCP28)Inhibition of the noncanonical Wnt/PCP-RAC1-JNK and Wnt/Ca2+-CaMKII-NF-κB signaling pathwaySuppressed macrophage/neutrophil recruitmentTumor proliferation and promoted breast-to-bone metastasis73