Table I.

Summary of characteristics of neonatal sepsis and adult sepsis

Neonatal EOSNeonatal LOSAdult
RouteMaternal pathogen transmission
In utero
During birth
Contamination of skin-resident bacteria during clinical proceduresSurgical complications
Enteric pathogens translocating the intestinal lumenTranslocating pathogens from tissue infections (e.g., appendicitis, pneumonia, urinary tract infections)
Common causative pathogensGBSSkin-resident bacteria (such as S. epidermis)Similar rates of Gram-negative versus Gram-positive bacteria
E. coliGut-resident bacteria (such as E.coli)Gram-negative species: E. coli, K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa
Gram-positive species: S. aureus and S. epidermidis
Incidence0.26 cases per 1000 live births in 2010 (21)0.31 per 1000 live births (22)1.2% of patients develop sepsis after elective surgery (10)
Maternal GBS screening initiatives contribute to a decreased incidence from 1.8 cases per 1000 live births in the early 1990s (20)2% of patients develop sepsis following trauma-associated surgical cases (11)
Risk factorsLow birth weightLow birth weight5–66% of ventilated patients develop ventilator-associated pneumonia (15)
Surgery necessitated by trauma among orthopedic patients
Failure to screen for maternal GBS colonizationProlonged use of antibioticsProlonged need for mechanical ventilation, i.v., or catheter increases risk of infection in associated tissues
Failure to administer intrapartum antimicrobial prophylaxis