Table I. Baseline patient characteristics
Control Group (n = 25)T2DM Group (n = 21)HF Group (n = 19)HF with T2DM Group (n = 26)p Value
Age (y)58.4 ± 1.662.0 ± 1.066.4 ± 1.167.8 ± 1.2p ≤ 0.03
Males n (%)18 (72)19 (90.5)12 (63.2)19 (73.1)NS
NYHA classification n (%)
 Class II--15 (78.9)19 (73.1)
 Class III--4 (21.1)7 (26.9)
LVEF n (%)--30.4 ± 336.8 ± 2.5
rEF n (%)--15 (78.9)19 (73.1)
pEF n (%)--4 (21.1)7 (26.9)
Ischemic HF n (%)--9 (47.4)15 (57.7)
Nonischemic HF n (%)10 (52.6)11 (42.3)
Cardiomyopathy n (%)--3 (15.8)1 (3.9)
Valvular n (%)--3 (15.8)3 (11.6)
Others n (%)--4 (21.1)7 (26.9)
Medical conditions n (%)
 Hypertension-8 (38.1)15 (78.9)10 (38.5)p = 0.006
 Dyslipidemia-9 (43.0)15 (78.9)19 (73.1)
 Stroke-0 (0)5 (26.4)9 (34.6)
 Chronic kidney disease-3 (14.3)5 (26.4)10 (38.5)
Treatment n (%)
 ACEi-8 (38.1)3 (15.8)9 (34.6)
 ARBs-5 (23.8)12 (63.2)13 (50)
 β-blockers-4 (19.1)18 (94.7)26 (100)
 Diuretic agent-2 (9.5)16 (84.2)26 (100)
 Statin6 (24)17 (81)16 (84.2)21 (80.8)
 Anticoagulant1 (4)0 (0)8 (42.1)15 (57.7)
 Sulfonylureas-5 (23.8)-7 (26.9)
 DPP-4 inhibitor-9 (42.9)8 (42.1)12 (46.2)
 α-Glucosidase inhibitors-1 (4.8)4 (21.1)8 (30.8)
 Agonists GLP-1-3 (14.3)--
 SGLT2 inhibitor-5 (23.8)--
 Metformin-18 (85.7)-5 (19.2)
 Insulin-7 (33.3)-4 (15.4)
Creatinine (μmol/l)78.579.4126.4125.8p < 0.001
Glucose (mmol/l)5.258.606.649.40p < 0.001
Cholesterol (mmol/l)4.973.523.633.10NS
Triglyceride (mmol/l)1.791.571.561.93NS
LDL (mmol/l)3.101.752011.54NS
  • Values are mean ± SE or percentage.

  • ACEi, angiotensin-converting enzyme; ARBs, angiotensin receptor blocker; DPP-4 inhibitor, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor; GLP-1, glucagon-like peptide 1; SGLT2, sodium/glucose cotransporter 2.