Table II. Studies investigating TLR7/8 agonist encapsulation formulation and adjuvanticity
AdjuvantFormulationModelDisease ModelImmune Response ActivatedReference
R848PLGA encapsulationMiceOVANanoparticle encapsulation of TLR7/8 agonist R848 attenuates the production of systemic inflammatory cytokines while enhancing humoral immunogenicity(54)
TLR7/8 IMQPLGA encapsulation with TLR4 agonist MPLANHP rhesus macaqueSIVInduction of robust innate, Ag-specific humoral, plasmablast, long-lived bone marrow resident plasma cells compared with alum alone–adjuvanted vaccines(55)
TLR7/8 IMQPLGA encapsulation with TLR4 agonist MPLAMice and NHP rhesus macaqueInfluenzaInduction of robust innate, Ag-specific humoral responses as compared with single TLR alone–adjuvanted vaccines. Immunization protected mice against lethal avian and swine influenza virus and induced robust immunity against pandemic influenza A virus subtype H1N1 (H1N1), A/California/04/09 strain in rhesus macaques.(56)
TLR7 IMQ (imiquimod)Anionic liposomal (phospholipids, cholesterol) encapsulation with TLR4 agonist GLAMiceMalariaInduction of robust innate, Ag-specific humoral, plasmablast, long-lived bone marrow resident plasma cells compared with alum alone–adjuvanted vaccines(57)
IMQ CL075 (TLR8/7)Poly(ethylene glycol)-bl-poly(propylene sulfide)–Ag85 encapsulationHumanized TLR8 neonatal miceTuberculosis and HIVInduction of adult-like innate maturation of human neonatal DCs in vitro. Single neonatal immunization induced noninferior Ag85-specific T cell responses as compared with live attenuated BCG vaccination in vivo.(59)