Table III. Studies investigating TLR7/8 agonist adsorption to alum
AdjuvantFormulationModelDisease ModelImmune Response ActivatedReference
SMIP TLR7BZN TLR7 agonists chemically modified with phosphonates to allow adsorption onto aluminum hydroxideMiceOVA, meningococcal disease, and anthraxSignificantly enhanced amount and quality of Ag-specific Ab responses, and titers and serum bactericidal activity (SBA) against MenB(60)
SMIP TLR7Alum-adsorbed BZN TLR7MiceMeningococcal diseaseImproved potency of glycoconjugate. CRM197-MenC vaccine as compared with alum-adjuvanted vaccine, such as increased anti-MenC Ab titers and SBA against MenC, even with a single immunization.(62)
SMIP TLR7Alum-adsorbed BZN TLR7MiceTetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (whooping cough)Formulation of an acellular pertussis vaccine enhanced Bordetella pertussis–specific Th1/Th17 responses, serum IgG2a/b, and the protective efficacy against B. pertussis aerosol challenge(63)
SMIP TLR7Alum-adsorbed BZN TLR7Mice and rabbitStaphylococcus aureusSignificant Ab titers, Th1-skewed immune response, reduction of abscess formation, and dermonecrosis(65)
SMIP TLR7Alum-adsorbed BZN TLR7Adult rhesus macaquesRSVEnv-specific CD4+ T cells in the vaccine-draining LNs, which directly correlated with increased Tfh cell differentiation and germinal center formation(66)