Table II. Maternal vaccine recommendations in the United States
VaccineTypeIndications
Routinely administered vaccinesTdapToxoid/inactivatedAll pregnant women
InfluenzaInactivatedAll women pregnant during the influenza season
InfluenzaLive attenuated (LAIV)Contraindicated during pregnancy
Hepatitis AInactivatedPrior to travel, history of injection of illicit drug, professional exposure, chronic liver disease
Hepatitis BProteinPrior to travel, sexual exposure, drug usage
MeningococcalInactivatedRisk–benefit assessment
MMRLive attenuatedContraindicated during pregnancy; postpartum if rubella nonimmune
PneumococcalConjugateNo recommendation
PCV 13
Pneumococcal PPSV23PolysaccharideInadequate data
Poliomyelitis (IPV)InactivatedUse if needed
VaricellaLive attenuatedContraindicated during pregnancy; postpartum if varicella nonimmune
ZosterLive attenuatedContraindicated during pregnancy
Other vaccinesAnthraxSubunitVaccination not recommended in pre-event setting; may be used if high risk of exposure in postevent setting
BCGLiveContraindicated
Japanese encephalitis virusInactivatedInadequate data for specific recommendation
TyphoidLive and inactivatedInadequate data; use Vi polysaccharide vaccine if needed
RabiesInactivatedMay be used if needed
Yellow feverLive attenuatedRisk–benefit assessment
  • BCG, bacillus Calmette–Guerin; LAIV, live attenuated influenza vaccine; MMR, measles mumps and rubella; PCV, pneumococcal conjugate vaccine.

  • From the guidelines of the 2016 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (148).