Table II. HBsAg-specific bulk cytokine secretion stratified by humoral immune response to primary immunization against HBV at age 1 and 2 y
CMI Parameter at 1 yLow-Responders at 1 y (n = 16)High-Responders at 1 y (n = 57)p ValueNonresponders at 2 y (n = 15)Low- Responders at 2 y (n = 28)High-Responders at 2 y (n = 29)p Value
IFN-γ secretion (pg/ml), median (IQR)18.64 (32.18)24.23 (30.98)0.11922 (37.84)17.15 (34.26)33.16 (44.87)0.025 (0.009a)
IL-10 secretion (pg/ml), median (IQR)32.11 (87.17)82.32 (163.16)0.0535.09 (114.69)79.87 (162.62)79.06 (119.45)0.112 (0.05b, 0.069c)
IL-13 secretion (pg/ml), median (IQR)529.61 (1219.63)978.30 (957.53)0.125796.25 (1104.05)1157.21 (1313.74)860.19 (988.54)0.262
TNF-α secretion (pg/ml), median (IQR)103.50 (131.24)171.24 (209.45)0.06116.11 (161)178.65 (231.64)162.27 (175.13)0.115 (0.032c)
  • Nonresponders: anti-HBs levels <10 IU/l; low-responders: anti-HBs levels 10–100 IU/l; high-responders: anti-HBs levels ≥100 IU/l. Categorical data are presented as a number (%). The bold text indicates statistical significance.

  • a Low-responders versus high-responders.

  • b Nonresponders versus low-responders.

  • c Nonresponders versus high-responders.